Psychology Degrees & Careers How to Become a Psychologist
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从帮助患有各种疾病的病人到在法庭上作证指控罪犯，心理学家执行许多任务。因为心理学家的工作是理解人们的思想、情绪和行为，这些受欢迎的专业人士必须完成一个高度的教育，大多数心理学家至少要获得硕士学位。However, many psychologists earn a Ph.D.
Psychologists enjoy high levels of employment and excellent wages. According to theBureau of Labor Statistics(BLS), psychologists earned a median annual salary of $80,370 in 2019. Projections show a 14% increase in psychologist positions between 2018 and 2028, much faster growth than the average job.
This guide explores how to become a psychologist, including career expectations, psychologist duties, and the different types of psychology careers. This page also highlights common psychology courses, how to find the best psychology schools, and potential salary for those with a psychologist degree.
What Does a Psychologist Do?
Psychologists observe and interpret the behaviors and actions of individuals for different reasons, such as providing healthcare solutions or solving workplace problems. Psychologists interview individuals and groups and observe how people respond to different questions and situations. After observing patients, psychologists identify potential issues or disorders, then find solutions or determine potential treatments.
TheBLS reportsthat most psychologists work for themselves and start their own practices. Elementary and secondary schools employ the second-highest number of psychologists, followed by healthcare services. Psychologists typically work with other psychologists, social workers, or physicians.
Psychologist Salary and Job Growth
According to the BLS, psychologists earned a median annual wage of $80,370 in 2019. The BLS projects jobs for psychologists to grow 14% between 2018 and 2028, which means 26,100 new psychologist positions. However, salary and job growth potential depend on job type and industry. For example, clinical, counseling, and school psychologists earned a median wage of $78,200 in 2019, compared to $92,880 for industrial-organizational psychologists and $101,790 for all others.
Psychologists who work in the government earn $96,870, the highest median wage for all industries, according to the BLS. Those who work in hospitals earn a median wage of $88,480, and ambulatory healthcare services psychologists earn a median wage of $82,250. The city, region, and state where psychologists work also impact potential job growth and salary rates.
Four Steps to Becoming a Psychologist
Aspiring psychologists can begin their careers in four steps. However, note that every psychology career sets different requirements, meaning aspiring psychologists should determine what type of psychologist they plan on becoming. Requirements that affect career outcomes include education, certification, and professional experience.
Regardless of career goals, all aspiring psychologists must earn at least a master's degree in psychology. Some positions require a Ph.D., and students should begin studying toward their desired field during their undergraduate program. Many schools allow learners to specialize their bachelor's in psychology, and those that do not typically offer psychology electives that allow students to study niche fields of interest. Undergraduate students should also look into a psychology internship in their desired field.
Because states set their own licensure requirements, future psychologists should consider studying in their desired state. Doing so typically satisfies all in-state licensure requirements. After completing their program, psychologists must then apply for licensure through their state's board of psychology. Licensure requirements vary by state but typically include a bachelor's or master's degree, work experience, testing, and an application fee. In-state requirements can also vary depending on the specific psychology career field.
Depending on the state, psychologists earn experience before, during, or after applying for licensure. Psychologists' first position could include supervised clinical hours or limited professional capabilities, though specifics depend on the state and industry. Aside from a license, psychologists typically require professional certification, and some psychology positions require previous psychology experience. Look for entry-level psychology positions within certain industries, such as positions with the government or within healthcare organizations.
Many psychology positions, particularly those that require a Ph.D., also require certification. Certification demonstrates a psychologist's expertise in a specific field, and some states require psychologists to earn specific certifications to obtain a license. Certifications require continuing education credits and a renewal fee, though requirements vary by certification. In some instances, psychologists benefit from earning a certification even if not required. Doing so could let psychologists set higher rates, increasing their salary.
Preparing to Become a Psychologist: Schools and Programs
Psychologists must earn at least a master's degree, so students should anticipate completing both a bachelor's and master's degree, potentially at different schools. Every school establishes its own psychology program and creates a unique curriculum with specific program outcomes. While some schools allow for specializations, others emphasize flexibility.
Some schools, such asIndiana University Bloomington, offer both a bachelor of arts and bachelor of science in psychology. Picking one over the other could expose students to specific courses of interest. Students should also research if schools offer their psychology programs online. TheUniversity of South Floridaoffers its bachelor of arts in psychology both onsite in Tampa and entirely online.
After learners find schools that align with their career goals and study format, they should consider factors including synchronous or asynchronous courses, rolling admission policies, required internships or work experience, whether the program uses a cohort system, program length, and financial aid opportunities.
Courses in Psychology Programs
Courses vary depending on the school, concentration, and degree level. Most undergraduate programs begin with introductory courses like research methods and experiment analysis, two important skills that professional psychologists must master. Later, undergraduate students take more advanced courses, such as cognitive psychology, developmental psychology, and social psychology. These courses introduce learners to different fields of psychology and might influence desired career outcomes.
Graduate-level psychology courses cover much more advanced topics, and curriculum depends heavily on students' specialization. Master's degree or Ph.D. psychology students can anticipate conducting research and writing a thesis.
While availability depends on the program, future psychology students can anticipate completing the following courses.
as an introduction to statistics for psychology majors, this course covers statistical data, data ordering, and how to measure tendencies and dispersion. Students also explore probability, estimation, and hypothesis testing. Statistics play a large role in all psychology fields, making this introductory course crucial to every undergraduate program.
本课程介绍精神障碍的成因及治疗。学习者学习精神障碍，如酗酒、吸毒、饮食失调和抑郁症。学生将学习异常的定义和精神障碍的不同分类。Because many psychologists' patients suffer from mental disorders, this course serves as a foundation for future courses and degrees.
Available as an upper-division course at the undergraduate level or as a graduate-level course, this course analyzes the development of the human brain and body from birth through old age, paying attention to important benchmarks as people grow. While the course analyzes psychological factors within each age group, students can use this course to learn more about a specific demographic, such as children, teenagers, or adults.
Accreditation for a Psychology Program
为了确保高质量的教育，学生应该只申请认证的学院和大学。获得国家或地区认证的学校已经达到了由认证机构制定的一套学术标准。All accrediting bodies must meet standards set by theCouncil for Higher Education Accreditation, a federally backed organization.
While schools receive either national or regional accreditation, learners benefit most from studying at regionally accredited institutions. Regional accreditation holds colleges and universities to higher standards, and many employers and graduate schools prefer applicants who earned a degree from a regionally accredited school. Also, students may not qualify for forms of financial aid if they study at a nationally accredited school.
Aspiring psychologists should also consider enrolling in an accredited psychology program. Look for programmatic accreditation fromAmerican Psychological Association(APA) andNational Association of School Psychologists(NASP).
Many students who plan to enter a specific psychology field select a specialty. Psychology specialties combine normal psychology coursework with a set of field-specific courses. While some undergraduate programs allow for specializations, most psychology students select a specialization at the graduate level. Potential specializations include clinical, developmental, industrial-organizational, forensic, social, school, and neuropsychology.
Colleges and universities usually structure psychology programs to easily fit a specialty, meaning students do not study for a longer period of time. However, some schools require learners to take 1-2 additional psychology courses, minimizing the number of elective courses available.
Specializations serve as an excellent tool for future psychologists. Aside from exposing students to a specific field, specializations improve resumes and applications, demonstrating a strong background in that field. A specialty could also lead to internship opportunities or increase students' chances of getting into a competitive graduate program.
Psychology students have a variety of concentration areas to choose from at the graduate level. The list below highlights several common specialization areas and potential occupations for each.
This branch of psychology is heavily involved in working with people experiencing a wide range of problems, ranging from sexual dysfunction to issues at work. The field seeks to improve peoples' ability to cope and function through all stages of their lives. Students in this field take foundational psychology courses before selecting graduate-level classes geared toward their chosen profession.
Substance Abuse Counselor
Professionals in this career work with individuals struggling with addiction, with the ultimate goal of helping patients break those behaviors so they can lead fulfilling lives.
Marriage and Family Therapist
This is the largest branch of psychology. While sharing many similarities with counseling psychology, clinical psychology tends to deal with more severe mental issues by looking at the causes of mental illness and prescribing appropriate treatment. Basic topics include abnormal psychology and cognitive psychology. Graduates will need to be licensed by their state to diagnose and treat patients.
Psychologists in this occupation are typically employed by prisons or by police departments to analyze the behavior of convicted or accused criminals, respectively. Those working in corrections facilities are charged with rehabilitating inmates for release.
This branch of psychology is interdisciplinary because it ties in with subjects such as neuroscience and linguistics. It is primarily concerned with how people's brains work, including how they learn new information, remember it, and think about it.
Industrial-organizational psychology is a growing field that is quickly becoming its own specialization. These psychologists work with companies to create policies within workplaces to increase employee productivity and satisfaction.
Human Factors Engineer
Finding a Psychology Program
Components of a Successful Psychologist Career: Skills, Credentials, Tools, and Technology
Psychologists must demonstrate excellent analytical, communication, interpersonal, and observational skills. Professionals master these skills during their time at school. Learners develop other important skills, including patience and problem-solving, either while working or during an internship. Because psychology depends on practical experience, students should strongly consider completing an internship.
Psychologist Professional Organizations
Current psychology students and professionals benefit from becoming members of psychology-focused professional organizations. These groups extend various tools, data, and invitations to members. Psychologists use these professional organizations to connect with other psychologists, stay current on industry trends, and get connected with continuing education opportunities.
Association for Psycological ScienceAPS是心理学科学发展的领先国际组织，连接了不同行业的心理学科学家。APS为在校学生提供一系列的网络研讨会，注册成为会员的专业人士可以访问八种心理学出版物和每周的时事通讯。
National Association of School PsychologistsNASP is the leading organization for school psychologists. The association organizes professional development, supports various publications, and offers professional certification to school psychologists. Members get to connect with school psychologists around the world, an excellent way to network with experienced school psychologists.
American Board of Professional Psychology作为心理学专业委员会认证的主要机构，ABPP为心理学实践制定标准。心理学家可以通过该网站找到认证申请和继续教育机会。ABPP不提供会员资格，但提供对所有心理学家有用的各种资源。
Society for Personality and Social PsychologySPSP成立于1974年，是社会和人格心理学家的主要专业机构。SPSP提供七个会员级别，包括本科生和研究生的选择。成员可以获得该领域的最新研究和更新。SPSP为超过7500名社会和人格心理学家提供服务。
FAQ on Becoming a Psychologist
What do psychologists do?
What is the difference between a psychiatrist and psychologist?
What do psychologists do in a day?
Resources for Psychologists
Annual Review of PsychologyCreated in 1950 to use scientific advancements for the benefit of society, the Annual Review of Psychology combines different fields of science with psychology. The review covers clinical, social, personality, environmental, community, and other forms of psychology. It combines them withbiology, psychopathology, and human development. This review regularly publishes some of the top psychology research papers.
Offered by APA and extended to psychologists through membership, the Psychological Bulletin publishes reviews and interpretations of issues in psychology. The bulletin combines narrative and analytic pieces and accepts submissions from psychologists. Any social psychologist who wants to stay current on industry breakthroughs benefits from this publication.
Created specifically for psychology students and teachers, Psych Web offers a plethora of free information. Students can read about career advice from current psychology professionals and download a free introductory psychology textbook to learn more about the field. The site also contains links to other useful psychology resources.
Social Psychology Network
- Neuropsychology Degrees and Careers: How to Become a Neuropsychologist
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LearnHowToBecome.com is an advertising-supported site. Featured or trusted partner programs and all school search, finder, or match results are for schools that compensate us. This compensation does not influence our school rankings, resource guides, or other editorially-independent information published on this site.