Resume Guide

Become Team
Become Team
January 23, 2019
Resume Guide is an advertising-supported site. Featured or trusted partner programs and all school search, finder, or match results are for schools that compensate us. This compensation does not influence our school rankings, resource guides, or other editorially-independent information published on this site.

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Writing a resume may feel like a daunting task, but it serves as an essential component to most job application processes. However intricate writing a resume may feel, most recruiters spend only aroundsix secondsreviewing a resume. Keeping this in mind can help you create a resume that conveys the most essential information in a clear, concise, and attractive manner. This guide explores the ins and outs of creating successful application materials for your field of employment, delving into how to format, sequence, organize, review, and submit resumes and cover letters that won't end up on the bottom of a recruiter's pile.

Which Type of Resume Should You Use?

Different jobs call for different kinds of resumes. A variety of factors, such as your desired field of employment; your professional or academic history; your individual career path; and your extracurricular, volunteer, or creative experiences, can affect the type of resume you should submit. This section outlines the three main types of resumes, exploring when to use them and where you can find relevant templates and samples.

What is a Chronological Resume?

A chronological resume lists academic and professional experiences in order of when they occured. In other words, chronological resumes begin with a job seeker's current or most recent job and go backwards in time. Chronological resumes may also include a career summary statement and catalog relevant achievements, honors, awards, and extracurricular activities.

When Should You Use a Chronological Resume?


Chronological Resume Templates

  • ResumeGenius:This website provides several sample resumes for individuals applying to jobs in diverse areas, including customer service, food service, healthcare, and office administration.

  • American University:American University's online career center offers helpful descriptions, templates, and examples of various resume types, including several examples of chronological resumes.

  • Hloom:除了三十多个时间顺序简历模板,Hloom还为电工、建筑师、教师、护士、合规官员和平面设计师提供了一系列时间顺序简历样本。


Unlike chronological resumes, functional resumes list an applicant's relevant experiences and skills at the top of the document, regardless of chronology. This allows applicants to highlight the experiences and qualities they deem most relevant to the job. Beneath the ability section, applicants can provide a chronological history of their employment.


Functional resumes best serve applicants who frequently change jobs, have gaps in their professional history, want to reenter the workplace, or wish to transition into a new field. Rather than drawing attention to a candidate's inconsistent or irrelevant professional timeline, functional resumes instead highlight a candidate's combined skills, experiences, and assets, creating a cohesive picture of an applicant's professional value.

Functional Resume Templates

  • Hloom:Hloom boasts sample functional resumes for people in sales, graphic design, retail, and education, as well as for professionals transitioning careers. It also offers a variety of resume templates, from simple designs to heavily graphic-based documents.

  • Resume Genius:在这里,求职者可以找到一系列功能性简历模板,包括面向服务员、教师、办公室职员、客户服务代表和建筑工人的简历。

  • website offers several examples of functional resumes. Job seekers can view templates and sample resumes for accounting, business management, and editing jobs.

What is a CV?

简历(curriculum vitae的缩写)与简历的不同之处在于,它强调的是学术成就和经历,而不是专业知识,从而传达出申请者学者的形象。简历的长度一般不超过一页,而简历的长度可以达到三页甚至更长,要详细描述申请人的教学、研究和出版历史。


Candidates applying for jobs that require a demonstrated history of creative work, research, or publications should submit a CV rather than a resume. This holds true for academic, teaching, research, and creative positions, but may also include applications for creative residencies, conferences, scholarships, and fellowship opportunities.

Curriculum Vitae Templates

  • Overleaf:Here, applicants can find an extensive gallery of CV examples and templates, including generic examples and those provided by actual professors and graduate students.

  • The University of California, San Francisco:加州大学旧金山分校在网上提供精选的学术简历样本。申请人还可以查看整个申请包的样本,包括求职信、简历和教学理念。

  • Hloom:Hloom为不同的学术领域提供了简历例子,如物理、音乐、文学、环境科学和化学工程。申请人还可以找到教授职位、博士后职位和博士项目的简历示例。

What is a Scannable Resume?


When Should You Use a Scannable Resume?

You should use a scannable resume only if you know that the employer in question uses some kind of digital scanning technology to review applicants' resumes or if the application specifically requests one — if you feel uncertain, you can always ask. Since the early 2000s, fewer employers rely on scanning technology, instead using online application and database systems.

Scannable Resume Templates

  • Purdue University Online Writing Lab:Purdue's online writing lab offers a host of valuable materials, including an example of a traditional resume converted into a scannable resume.

  • Penn State e-Education Institute:宾夕法尼亚州立大学提供了一份电脑扫描式简历样本,作为在线风格手册《信息时代的有效技术写作》的一部分。


What to Include on Your Resume


Contact Information

Applicants should always put their contact information at the top of their resume or CV. This information should include the applicant's full name, location (city and state or full address, if desired), phone number, email address, and a link to their professional website (if applicable). Applicants can also link to an online portfolio of their work or their LinkedIn page.

Education & Training

In this section, applicants should describe their highest levels of education or training, listing all postsecondary programs they completed or attended. Applicants should list the name and location of each school, the type of degree or certification earned, and their dates of attendance and/or graduation. This section typically uses columns or bullet points of information rather than full sentences.

Work History

This section should provide a detailed overview of an applicant's professional history. For each job, applicants should include the name of the organization or company, the title of the position they held, the city and state, their dates of employment, the duties they performed, and any notable achievements. Many people choose to list their duties and achievements by writing concise descriptions for each bullet point.



Introduction or Summary

Introductions, also known as objective statements, serve as a quick, precise way for applicants to communicate how their personal experiences and objectives align with their prospective employers' hiring goals. These sections typically appear at the top of a resume (below the applicant's contact information), run between a sentence and a short paragraph in length, and refer explicitly to the name of the hiring organization and the desired position.

与介绍类似,摘要(有时被称为资格摘要)在简历顶部的一个简短列表中表达了候选人的整体能力和技能。摘要通常包括几个要点,说明申请人最相关的资历。Qualification summaries remain uncommon in resumes and may stand out to potential employers.

What to Leave Off Your Resume



Personal Achievements

Resumes should highlight your professional or academic achievements, but they should not list irrelevant accomplishments in your personal life. While it should interest a potential employer that you were recognized as employee of the year at your last job, they may not care that you took first place in a marathon or karate competition.

Irrelevant Information

Employers do not need to read about every detail of your professional or academic history — only include details relevant to the job in question. For instance, someone applying for a position as a chemical engineer need not mention the summer they spent working at an ice cream shop in high school or the weekends they currently spend volunteering for an animal shelter.

Outdated Accomplishments


Partisan or Religious Information


Resume Writing Tips

After determining what to include on your resume, the next step revolves around figuring out how to write about it. Applicants should pay careful attention to the content, organization, and consistency of their information, as well as how their resume appears on the page. Applicants should also tailor their resume to each individual job application, drawing attention to whatever skills and experiences most accurately relate to the job's required or preferred qualifications.

Use Action Verbs

Recruiters want resumes that communicate information clearly and concisely.Action verbshelp applicants economize their language while incorporating words that pop; they can alsocreate a stronger visual impactof skills or achievements. For example, "I helped with a training event" can become "Iorchestrateda training event," and "I worked to start a new program" becomes "Ipiloteda program."

Write High-Impact Accomplishment Statements

Accomplishment statements help applicants concisely illustrate their achievements and the qualitative or quantitative value these achievements brought to their current or former employer. The general formula for creating a high-impact accomplishment statement involves identifying a problem, explaining how you took action to solve it, and illustrating the positive results. Because these pack a big punch in a short amount of space — creating an entire narrative arc in only a sentence or two — applicants should try to incorporate these statements whenever possible throughout their resume.


Adding keywords to your resume may help it advance past the first stage of review. When submitting a scannable resume to a large company, it may prove especially important to use keywords. Because applicant tracking systems digitally scan resumes, they may weed out resumes that lack certain relevant keywords. When deciding what keywords to add, refer to the job description — employers typically pull keywords from their own language. Keywords may also include concrete skills or experiences, such as types of computer software, language skills, or leadership experience.

Add Numbers and Data

Whenever possible, use specific numbers or data to quantify your professional achievements. Rather than writing that you greatly increased workplace productivity, write that you increased workplace productivity by 15%. The same goes for quantifying money and people, e.g., you received $50,000 in grant money or recruited 10 employees. Make sure to provide a timeframe for numbers. Rather than mentioning that you authored 2-3 blog posts, write that you published 2-3 blog posts per week.

Prep Multiple Formats

To accommodate varying application guidelines, make sure to prepare multiple formats of your resume. For instance, some employers might prefer a PDF, while others may require a .doc or .docx file. You may also find it helpful to print off a version of each document beforehand, so that you can gain an idea of what a hard copy will look like to an employer. This can also help you catch potential formatting errors that may occur when saving your resume to a different file type.

Resume Format Tips

The layout, organization, and resulting appearance of a resume can carry just as much import as the content. A sloppy, unorganized resume may signal to an employer that you lack attention to detail, patience, or organizational skills. To avoid looking careless, make sure to create a clean, error-free resume that adheres to a unified format.

Choose a Format and Stick to It

Whether you decide to create a chronological or functional resume, make sure to stick with one format throughout your resume. Create distinct sections (e.g., professional history, education, skills, etc.) and limit these sections to the appropriate and relevant information. The headers of each section should match, as should the style and format within each subsection.

Choose Font Wisely


Break Up Information with Lines

Adding lines can help visually organize different sections within your resume. You can add a horizontal line under each subject header (e.g., work history, education, etc.) or add a vertical line to separate marginal information from the main body of the resume. Instead of lines, you can also create boxes around headers.

Use Color Wisely


Use Graphs If Applicable

Rather than communicating complicated numerical information through words, you can create a simple pie chart or graph. Graphs can help recruiters quickly assess information such as sales data, allowing them to engage with your resume in a deeper way. You can also create charts to show the breakdown of your skill sets or professional experience.

Cover Letter Do's and Don'ts




Before You Hit Send: Proofreading Checklist


Ask a Resume Expert

Krista Morris, Chief Resume Writer & CEO, Virtuoso Resumes and Recruiting
Even after determining the right type of resume to write and getting familiar with quality resume content, there can still be some uncertainty about just how job seekers should sell themselves to prospective employers. After all, resume-writing can be a particularly intimidating part of getting a job. Resume and job search expert, Krista Morris, provides answers to some of the most frequently asked questions to help job seekers present their best selves to employers.

Do I need to make a stand-alone resume? Or can I just use my LinkedIn profile?



Resumes can definitely be more than one page. I realize that conventional wisdom says we should all be cookie cutter automatons, but honestly, we are all different. And since each of us has a wildly different professional history, how on earth could the same resume format work for all of us?

If you've only had one job, then a single page works fine. But how about the CEO who swoops in -- drives a turnaround -- and flies away to her next challenge? She's probably had 5-7 jobs in the past 15 years. One page won't work. Or how about a freelancer with tons of gigs and types of experiences? Or the guy who has worked his way up through seven progressive promotions? One page will not work for any of them. Let your work history make the choice for you.


是的,没有。颜色很容易被求职者跟踪软件(ATS)识别,但要坚持使用真实的字体(Calibri, Arial, Garamond, Cambria, Times New Roman),以防你提交简历的ATS比你年龄大。对于设计元素,不要使用任何图形、文本框或绘图工具。坚持使用下划线、边框和列。

Honestly, even if your resume format is boring because you're not a Microsoft Word wizard, if the content is amazing, you'll get the job! (Or at least an interview.)


Sometimes. If the job is more than 10 years ago, feel free to omit it. If the job is more recent than that, then you need to show that you haven't been sitting on your couch binging Netflix 24x7. An unrelated job is better than a resume gap.





What mistakes do you often see on resumes?

这个话题我可以讲上几个小时!Instead, I'll just list the top three:

  • Typos.而且不是普通的错别字,是非常严重的错别字。我曾经有一个客户给我发过他们的简历,他写过在一家生产工厂做三班倒的工作,除了他不小心漏掉了“f”。他的“转变”变成了“狗屎”。拼写检查没有发现,因为“sh*t”是一个真实的单词。这个故事的寓意是要非常非常仔细地校对。

  • 工作职责清单。Ugh. So boring! I don't really care what you were responsible for -- I care what you actually accomplished. Being "responsible" for something doesn't actually tell me what you truly did day to day. It only tells me what you were supposed to do. Instead, focus on your wins and the stuff you're really proud of.

  • 用同一个词开头。It drives me crazy when I see each bullet begin with "Managed" or "Responsible for" or "Led." There are so many other words out there! Instead, pull your action verbs from the job ad -- the company you're applying to will have all kinds of verbs in their job announcements. Not only will your resume be less boring, but you'll be using the same language as your next potential employer.

Portrait of Debra Boggs, Co-Founder Of D&S Professional Coaching

Debra Boggs, Co-Founder Of D&S Professional Coaching

Krista Morris is a professional resume writer, recruiter, and job search guru who works with clients from every walk of life from CEO tosoftware engineer, advertising executive, teacher, mechanic, doctor, or even mortician (true story). Founding Virtuoso Resumes & Recruiting in 2007 and with thousands of resumes under belt, her specialty is crafting individualized documents, telling her clients' stories, and making them shine. She never charges for resume evaluations, so feel free to contact her at

Follow Krista:LinkedIn,Twitter,Facebook,

Become Team
Become Team
Contributing Writer is an advertising-supported site. Featured or trusted partner programs and all school search, finder, or match results are for schools that compensate us. This compensation does not influence our school rankings, resource guides, or other editorially-independent information published on this site.

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