科技学位与职业:How to Work in the Technology & Science Fields

Become Team
Become Team
April 13, 2022

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As a broad field, science and technology cover a breadth of disciplines, including biotechnology, life and physical science, animal and plant science and information technology. Science and technology professionals can be found in almost any sector, from government to manufacturing to pharmaceuticals. The following guide offers a high-level overview of the various degree programs and employment avenues within science and technology, details the major areas of opportunity, discusses common skillsets, and provides insight into education, employment and potential earnings.

Science & Technology Degrees and Career Paths




那些对科学和技术感兴趣的人有机会从事当今一些最紧迫的问题(如气候变化)、前沿研究(如药物开发)和技术创新(如移动应用)的工作。Below is a review of some of the major career pathways within science and tech:


Biotechnology is a professional field that spans an array of industries, including agriculture, human health, biofuels, industrial products, environmental protection, and pharmaceuticals.

Pathology Laboratory Technologist病理技术人员在实验室环境下工作,对生物样本进行测试,如细胞、液体和身体组织。技术人员是一个多样化的职业,工作领域从肿瘤学(癌症研究)到免疫学(免疫系统研究)。他们使用精密的检测设备,负责跟踪和记录数据,并与医生和其他研究人员合作。大约一半的技术人员在医院实验室工作,而其他人在私人医生办公室、大学研究实验室和诊断实验室工作。人口老龄化,加上《平价医疗法案》(Affordable Care Act)带来的对医疗服务的更大需求,预计将在2012年至2022年期间推动全国就业增长22%。

Education requirements

Biological Science

Biological science is an interdisciplinary area of study that has applications in multiple areas, such asbiology生态学、神经科学、免疫学、医学和保护学。

Environmental Science Techniciansare research specialists tasked with investigating the sources of environmental hazards, such as pollution and water contamination. Typically working under the supervision of an environmental scientist, technicians are responsible for a variety of tasks. Responsibilities vary from collecting samples to analyze water quality in a lake to performing scientific tests to identify radon in a commercial building. Increased public awareness of environmental concerns, coupled with the loss of natural resources through population growth is expected to generate a 19 percent increase in employment opportunities nationwide between 2012 and 2022.

Education requirements
Environmental science technicians are generally required to have an associate degree in environmental science, public health or related field. However, some employers prefer candidates with a bachelor's degree.


Aviation is an industry that deals with the design, production, operation and maintenance of aircraft and their systems.

Avionics and Aircraft Equipment Mechanics处理两个类似但不同的角色:飞机机械师通常在飞机上工作,诊断和修理电气和机械问题,而航空电子机械师测试,安装和维护飞机上的电子设备。他们的任务是保持飞机正常飞行,并参与联邦航空管理局的检查。该职业提供多个切入点,包括在职培训和职业学校培训计划。A specialized field, nearly 140,000 individuals work in aircraft and avionic mechanics throughout the United States.

Education requirements


Aviation is an industry that deals with the design, production, operation and maintenance of aircraft and their systems.

Avionics and Aircraft Equipment Mechanics处理两个类似但不同的角色:飞机机械师通常在飞机上工作,诊断和修理电气和机械问题,而航空电子机械师测试,安装和维护飞机上的电子设备。他们的任务是保持飞机正常飞行,并参与联邦航空管理局的检查。该职业提供多个切入点,包括在职培训和职业学校培训计划。A specialized field, nearly 140,000 individuals work in aircraft and avionic mechanics throughout the United States.

Education requirements

Information Technology

Information technology is a professional industry that deals with the use of computers and networking to create, process, and store electronic data.

Software Developersuse programming languages (e.g. C+, Python) to design, develop, code and build software programs and applications that run on computers, websites, mobile devices, networks, and other computing systems. A highly technical field, the field is generally divided into two specialties: systems/software development and application development. Developers may choose to concentrate in a certain programming language (e.g. PHP) or technology – such as databases or mobile applications. Demand is surging nationally for skilled professionals in the field, due to growth in information technology, particularly mobile device use, big data analytics, and cybersecurity. Job opportunities are projected to surpass 20 percent nationally for both specializations.

Education requirements

Natural Science

Natural Science is a broad area of practice that covers several disciplines including chemistry; geology; physics; astronomy; atmospheric science; and oceanography.

GeographerGeography has two distinct branches: physical and human geography. Geographers use quantitative and qualitative research methods to gather and analyze geographic data as it relates to physical characteristics (e.g. climate patterns, soil, water, vegetation) or human elements (e.g. economy, health, and environment). Using advanced technical equipment such as GPS, geographic information systems (GIS) or remote sensing, geographers seek to identify trends, patterns and relationships in geographic data in the form of maps, satellite images, charts, and photographs. Although it is a small field, geographers are expected to see 29 percent job growth between 2012 and 2022. Factors driving this growth includes the greater adoption and need for geographic technologies, as well as increased research into environmental change.

Education requirements
Although a bachelor's degree can lead to entry-level positions in the profession, a master's degree is typically required for employment. For research positions, a master's degree with multiple years of experience or Ph.D. is traditionally the minimum educational requirement.

Veterinary Science

Veterinary science is a branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and injuries in animals.

Veterinary TechnologistWorking under the supervision of alicensed veterinarian, veterinary technologies perform a range of tasks in the medical care of animals. For example, they may help collect laboratory samples for testing, assist in medical examinations, administer anesthesia, take X-rays, and prepare animals for surgery. Veterinary technologists work in a range of settings, including animal hospitals, private offices, and laboratories and with a variety of animals—from small (cats) to large (horses). A growing career field, the skills of technologists are in demand as the need for animal care in areas such as public health and animal safety increases. In fact, the Bureau of Labor Statistics projects 30 percent job growth for the profession between 2012 and 2022.

Education requirements
Veterinary technologies must complete a four-year program that culminates with a bachelor's degree in veterinary technology. They must pass the Veterinary Technician National Examination and meet state licensing requirements in order to practice legally.

Did You Know?

The US tech industry employed approximately 6.5 million people in 2014.


Components of a Successful Science and Technology Career: Skills, Credentials, Tools, and Technology


The ability to think analytically, problem solve and work independently are highly valued in the workplace today and serve as the foundation for any career in the science or technology fields. To be successful, prospective science and technology students and professionals should possess strong skills in the following areas:

Mathematical skills
Organizational skills
Scientific research requires the management of information and individuals in this space should be able to gather, collect, maintain and process data from different sources in an organized fashion.
Technical skills
An understanding of computers and software, along with the ability to troubleshoot technical issues are valued skills across multiple occupations in these industries.
Scientific knowledge skills
Science and technology are dynamic fields with a continually changing knowledge base. Individuals in these career paths should be able to critically evaluate the specialized knowledge of their field and identify potential new areas to explore.
Research skills
Research skills, including competencies in designing studies, collecting data, and statistical analysis are vital throughout science-focused careers. To that end, organizational and record-keeping skills, along with the ability to think creatively and develop innovative approaches to both research and solutions are also valued.
Communication skills
Writing, editing, speaking and presentation skills are central to scientific- and technology-based occupations. Because of the complex nature of each field, successful individuals in this field should be able to communicate clearly and effectively to both technical and non-technical audiences.
Management skills
Individuals in these fields should be detail-oriented with good time-management skills. They need to know how to plan and organize projects, delegate responsibilities and work with others.


Within the science and technology industries, earning a professional certification or credential can expand employment options by demonstrating the candidate's applied scientific knowledge and skills. Certifications are voluntary and help individuals stay up-to-date on the latest changes in their field as well as develop advanced competencies in both general and specialized areas of practice. Certifying programs are available across individual sectors and are offered through different groups, including industry associations, businesses, nonprofit organizations, and even academic institutions.

The list below is a snapshot of the different types of certifications open to science and technology professionals.

Certification Organization Description
Certified Food Scientist Institute of Food Technologist The CFS certification is designed for food science professionals. To earn the credential requires meeting work experience requirements and passing a 120-question exam that covers topics such as Quality Assurance & Control and Product Development.
Certified Environmental Scientist National Registry of Environmental Professionals The CES certification is open to candidates with a bachelor's degree related to environmental science with at least three years of professional experience. The certification exam is 1.5 hours and tests the candidate's knowledge in multiple areas, such as chemistry, biology, industrial hygiene, and risk assessment.
Certified Professional Soil Scientist Soil Science of America The CPSS certification is available to individuals who hold a BS in soils or related field and have either 5 years of professional experience or 3 years of experience for those with a master's or doctorate. Candidates must pass a multiple-choice examination to earn the designation.
Medical Laboratory Scientist American Society for Clinical Pathology The MLS certification has five different routes for eligibility, based on professional experience and the candidate's academic degree. The examination includes 100 questions and covers topics ranging from blood banking to urinalysis.
Aircraft Electronics Technician Aircraft Electronics Association The AET certification was developed by the National Center for Aerospace and Transportation Technologies. It is the industry standard and requires a passing score of 70% on an examination to earn the credential.
Cisco Certified Network Professional Cisco The CCNP designation is part of a certification path that requires passing several examinations, including one on routing, one on switched networks and one on troubleshooting and maintenance.

Tools and Technology

Scientists use a variety of tools to conduct research and experiments, depending on their specific tasks and responsibilities. These tools are used for collecting data, making observations, and taking measurements. Specific occupations may use more specialized tools and technologies, but, in general, most professionals will likely encounter the following:

  • Microscope
    Device used to magnify objects
  • Balance
    A tool used to measure an object's mass
  • Thermometer
    A tool used to measure temperature
  • Hand lens
    A device used to view objects up close
  • Magnifying Box
    A box used to contain and magnify small objects
  • Barometer
    An instrument used to measure air pressure
  • Spring Scale
    A tool used to determine the pull of gravity on an object
  • Petri Dish
    A dish that is used to grow and test mold or bacteria
  • Anemometer
    A tool used to measure wind speed

Science and Technology Career Salaries

Earning potential in science and technology is as varied as the career avenues themselves. Most technical fields, however, tend to pay above-average salaries. A review of Bureau of Labor Statistics earnings data for 72 science and tech-related careers revealed that 83 percent paid an annual salary of $50,000 or more.

根据《科学家》杂志的年度薪资调查,2014年,科学家的平均薪资为99011美元。薪酬最高的领域包括:生物技术(114,084美元)、生物化学(100,433美元)、肿瘤学(101,732美元)和细胞生物学(79,069美元)。《计算机世界》(ComputerWorld) 2015年IT行业薪酬调查和罗致恒富科技(Robert Half technology) 2016年薪酬调查指出,科技行业——尤其是信息技术行业——的薪酬继续呈上升趋势。Salaries across multiple disciplines, such assoftware engineering, are reaching six figures and growing.

根据美国劳工统计局(Bureau of Labor Statistics)的数据,截至2014年5月,以下表格列出了一些该行业薪酬最高的职业。




Computer and Information Research Scientists




Software Developers, Systems Software


Computer Network Architects


Software Developers, Applications


Materials Scientists


Geoscientists, Except Hydrologists and Geographers


Atmospheric and Space Scientists


Biochemists and Biophysicists

Science and Technology Job Growth, Prospects, and Outlook

The demand for scientific minds is being led by major scientific industries –biotechnology, bioservices, pharmaceutical – which are also driving innovation into new areas such as tissue engineering, biomedical research, and computer-assisted surgery. Additionally, increased global demand in other areas, such as agricultural and food production are driving innovation in fields such as genetic engineering.

This interconnected, technology-driven economy is creating new opportunities within the tech sector. And, the industry doesn't show any signs of slowing. According to CompTIA, the tech industry in the US accounted for more than 11 percent of the country's private sector payroll and nearly 130,000 new tech jobs were created nationally between 2013 and 2014. In an age of mobile devices, cloud computing, social media, and the Internet of Things, the future looks bright for technology professionals.

State Growth
Utah 24.4%
Colorado 23.9%
Texas 22.3%
Louisiana 19.6%
North Dakota 18.6%
California 18.1%
Oregon 17.3%
Montana 16.7%
North Carolina 15.9%
Florida 15.8%

Sources:Bureau of Labor Statistics and Projections Central

Related Occupations & Salaries: What You Need to Know


The table below details sample career paths available within science and tech with academic training at all levels – from high school diplomas to doctoral degrees.

Information Security Analysts




Education and Training:

Bachelor's degree

Biomedical Engineers




Education and Training:

Bachelor's degree

Computer Systems Analysts




Education and Training:

Bachelor's degree

Cartographers and Photogrammetrists




Education and Training:

Bachelor's degree

Biochemists and Biophysicists




Education and Training:

Doctoral or professional degree

Geological and Petroleum Technicians




Education and Training:

Associate's degree

Nuclear Technicians




Education and Training:

Associate's degree

Surveying and Mapping Technicians




Education and Training:

High school diploma or equivalent

Food Scientists and Technologists




Education and Training:

Bachelor's degree

Related Careers at a Glance

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Become Team
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